• Understand the diversity of living organisms and viruses by applying concepts of taxonomy and phylogeny
  • Sample and classify organisms
  • Examine how similarity and diversity within the kingdoms of life affect biodiversity, and examine connections between biodiversity and survival of species
  • Learn how scientists use the characteristics of organisms in biotechnology

Chapter 11 - Patterns of LifeEdit

How can you tell the internal features of an organism by looking at it’s external characteristics?
What evidence do scientist need to accurately classify an organism?
How could you determine which of these organisms are most similar to each other: a sea squirt, a bee, a human?

11.1 Six KingdomsEdit

Describe characteristics of representative organisms
Compare the structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Classify organisms living in your neighbourhood

  • Bacteria - have DNA not organized into a nucleus or chromosomes and lack other organelles
  • Archaea - bacteria that live in extreme environments which have unique structures and mechanisms
  • Protista - consists of living things that do not belong in other kingdoms
  • Fungi - do not carry out photosynthesis, obtain food by absorbing materials
  • Plantae - non-motile, obtain food through photosynthesis
  • Animalia - motile, ingest food they have obtained
  • Bacteria
    • Bacteria
  • Archaea
    • Archaea
  • Eukarya
    • Protista
    • Fungi
    • Plantae
    • Animalia

11.2 VirusesEdit

Describe characteristics of a representative virus
Learn the life cycle of representative viruses
Explain the relevance of current studies of viruses to the field of biotechnology

Viruses are not living organisms as they have no cellular structure
They are unable to grow or reproduce outside of a host cell
Viruses are essentially moving genes that infect cells
Viruses are RNA or DNA surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid and some have an envelope of fat when they are outside a cell
Capsid protects virus from attack by host cell enzymes
Helps virus attach to specific receptors on host cell
Types of virus differ in size and shape
Shape determined by type and arrangement or proteins in capsid
Polyhedral(polio), spherical(HIV), cylidrical(tobacco mosaic), bacteriophage(T4)
Some viruses only replicate in certain species
Some infect multiple kingdoms
Also classified by type of disease they cause
Human viruses classified in 21 groups which differ in genome and method of replication
Depends on metabolism of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cell to replicate genes and make capsid
Must attach to a receptor site on plasma membrane

11.3 The Classification of Living ThingsEdit

Define the fundamental principles of taxonomy
Demonstrate the usefulness of the system of scientific nomenclature
Construct a key for the identification of different organisms

Purpose of classification system is accurate identification of organisms
Practice of classifying organisms known as taxonomy (taxis=arrangement, nomos=law)
Taxonomic names usually Latin or Greek
When scientists define new species they must give Latin name
Each kingdom subdivided many times into smaller and smaller groups (hierarchical)
Each group called a taxon (plural taxa)
Additional taxa sometimes added (e.g. subphylum)
Species taxon includes members that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
Binomial nomenclature = two word naming system
First word is genus (plural genera) second word is species

11.4 Origins of DiversityEdit

Explain the importance of sexual reproduction to variability within a population
Define the fundamental principles of phylogeny
Apply the concept of phylogeny to the kingdoms of life

Diversity between species begins with diversity within species
Different populations of a species change in response to environment and can become different species
This process is evolution by natural selection
Changes in species are produced by random genetic mutations and selection for characteristics that increase survival and reproduction in particular environment
Asexual organisms mainly change through genetic mutation but most generations are identical
Sexual organisms produce variation every generation
Most organisms ensure genetic variation through meiosis
Meiotic cell division produces gametes with half the normal number of chromosomes
During fertilization gametes fuse to recombine genes
Continual re-assortment of traits allows many new characteristics
Taxonomy also aids study of evolution
One goal of taxonomy to determine evolutionary history of groups of organisms
Can be done by comparing species with each other and with past species
Can use evidence such as anatomy, development, biochemistry, DNA, and behavior and ecology
Taxa hierarchies are a hypothesis of organisms' evolutionary history or phylogeny
A phylogenetic tree shows common ancestors of different taxa
Forks in tree show where ancestral species split into two new species
Common ancestor at base of phylogenetic tree had general characteristics shared by descendants called primitive characteristics
Primitive characteristics define Order species are grouped
New species that evolve from ancestor have new features called derived characteristics
Cladistics is a classification schemes based on phylogeny
Cladistics based on idea that each group of related species has one common ancestor and organisms retain primitive characteristics and gain derived characteristics
A cladogram is a diragram similar to a phylogenetic tree but can be use to show different hypotheses about the phylogeny of a group of species
Understanding evolutionary relationships among species and other taxa can help in biotechnology such as using chemicals from one species in another related species
Can also help trace disease transmission since diseases spread more easily among related species

Chapter 12 - Mostly Micro-OrganismsEdit

How might a micro-biologist persuade you that “bacteria run the world”?
What is the link between the most common algal species in the ocean and toothpaste?
How is a mushroom like an animal?

12.1 Kingdom ArchaeaEdit

Describe the characteristics of members if the kingdom archaea
Classify representative archaea
Explain the relevance of current studies of archaea to the field of biotechnology

Prokaryotes that thrive in extreme conditions
Can live in hot springs, sea-floor vents, alkaline, acidic, or saline water, in volcanoes, hot coals, rocks below Earth's surface
All live without oxygen
Obtain energy from light or inorganic molecules
Look similar to bacteria but differ biochemically and genetically
Some have cell membranes with unusual lipids that can withstand high or low temperatures
Three main groups of archaea: methanogens, halophiles, thermacidophiles
Methanogens live in oxygen-free environments (below surface of swamps, marshes, or sewage disposal plants), use carbon dioxide, nitrogen gas, or hydrogen sulfide as source of energy, release methane as waste
Halophiles, salt-loving archaea, live in salty areas like salt pools or conditions up to 15% salt, cannot survive in weak salt-concentrations
Thermacidophiles live in very hot or acidic areas, like hot sulfur springs or volcanoes, deep sea vents, grow best at temperatures over 80 degrees C
Archaean enzymes are used in biotechnology and industry because they do not break down under harsh conditions
The earliest life may have been similar to archaean life since the conditions on Earth were very harsh
Present-day archaea can thrive in conditions similar to those thought to be present on early Earth

12.2 Kingdom BacteriaEdit

Describe characteristics of members of the kingdom bacteria
Explain the process of reproduction in bacteria
Classify representative bacteria
Explain the relevance of current studies of bacteria to the field of biotechnology

Bacteria have been classified by shape, structure of cell wall, and sources of food and energy
Bacterial phylogenies have been constructed based on RNA analysis
Bacteria are difficult to define as species since a species is a type of organism that can breed with each other but bacteria reproduce mainly asexually
Can also swap genes with other bacteria
Not genetically separated from one another
Genetic change by mutation occurs quickly, can change species in few generations
Can be shaped as spheres, rods, or spirals
Can group in pair, clusters, or chains
Can be photosynthetic or chemosynthetic and further divided by autotrophic or heterotrophic classification
Can reproduce by binary fission or by conjugation (transfer genes to another bacterium through pilus which then splits)
Can exchange DNA through plasmid gene transfer
Some bacteria can enter a dormant phase and form a small seed-like structure called endospore
While in this phase bacteria do not grow or reproduce and the endospore can withstand extreme temperature, drying out, and damaging chemicals
Endospores can survive for thousands of years
When favourable conditions return endospore loses coat and begins to grow and divide

12.3 Kingdom ProtistaEdit

Describe characteristics of member of the kingdom protista
Learn the life cycle of representative protists
Collect various organisms in an ecosystem, and classify them using taxonomy principles

Classified together more because they do not fit other kingdoms than because they are similar
Three major types: plant-like algae, animal-like protozoa, and fungus-like moulds
Protozoa mostly unicellular, lack cell walls, some have shells, most are motile, live in aquatic environments, wet soil, and in fluids in other organisms, about 10 000 of the 30 000 known species cause disease
Algae are aquatic protists that carry out photosynthesis; not plants because they have no roots, stems, or water-conducting tissues
Slime moulds and water moulds produce spores like fungi, move through water like protozoa, and have cellulose cell walls like plants

12.4 Kingdom FungiEdit

Describe characteristics of members of the kingdom fungi
Learn the life cycles of the representative fungi
Classify representative fungi

Fungi are heterotrophs
Feed by releasing digestive enzymes into environment and absorbing nutrients into cells
Most fungi are multi-cellular, made up of hyphae (singular hypha) a network of fine filaments
Consists of the mycelium, a loose hyphae network and other parts such as the mushroom
Reproduce by breaking off hyphae that grow into new mycelia or produce spores which are blown by wind to disperse fungi to new locations

Chapter 13 - Plants and AnimalsEdit

Why are flowering plants more common than any other type of plant?
Where do the most species of animals on Earth live?
Which animals have no organs?

13.1 From Water to LandEdit

Describe anatomical and physiological characteristics of plants
Learn the life cycle of select plants
Classify representative organisms
Use techniques of classification to illustrate the principles of taxonomy

13.2 Kingdom PlantaeEdit

Describe anatomical and physiological characteristics of plants
Learn the life cycle of plants
Classify representative plants
Demonstrate an understanding of the diversity of living organisms

Plants had algae like ancestors which evolved to live on land
Divided into vascular and non-vascular plants
Vascular plants have stems, roots, and leaves to carry water and nutrients
Algae could release gametes into surrounding water but cells will dry out in air
Plants originally released cells with thick walls covered in water to reproduce on land
Later developed pollen and seeds which allowed them to become more widespread

13.3 Kingdom AnimaliaEdit

Describe anatomical and physiological characteristic of animals
Learn the life cycle of select animals
Classify representative organisms from the Kingdom Animalia
Demonstrate an understanding of the diversity of living organisms

Multicellular eukaryotes that reproduce sexually
Classified based on differences in structure, tissues, organ systems
Earliest forms of animals were similar to sponges, jellyfish, and worms
Sponges spend lives attached to solid surface, filter food from water
Sponges are little more than colony of protists, suggesting first animals evolved from protists colonies
Body of sponge has single opening where food enters and waste leaves
Has no tissues or organs
Body made of two layers of cells
Cnidarians have two cell layers and a single opening, but have simple nervous system and muscle tissue
Can swim and capture prey
Can digest food then absorb